Aula delle Benedizioni (Benediction Hall)

Foto digitale

Foto digitale

The Aula delle Benedizioni (Benediction Hall) is a large monumental space located above the narthex (lobby area in the nave) of the Vatican Basilica, which takes up the dimensions of the architectural plan (30 x 30) and is divided by fluted Corinthian pilasters supporting the barrel coffered vaulting. Its longer sides are marked by large windows that look out to the east toward St. Peter’s Square and on the opposite side to the inside of the Basilica.
For centuries, the front area facing the the Square is the main view overlooking the Vatican to the city of Rome and traditionally it is from here that the pontiffs face and are acclaimed by the crowds of visitors and pilgrims during the most important Church occasions. In the 15th century, a loggia was constructed in the front area to be used for papal blessings and t his function was featured in many of the projects for the Church over the century that witnessed the current building reconstruction. In 1607 Paul V (1605-21) commissioned the architect Carlo Maderno (1556-29) to complete St. Peter’s Basilica and the plan called for the demolition of what remained of the Constantine-era aisle and the front portico, on which was superimposed a new loggia – the Aula delle Benedizioni (Benediction Hall) that we see today. Closed on the two shorter sides between two buildings that were first designated to hold two lateral bell towers designed by Bernini and interrupted in 1645, the hall is both in direct communication with the Basilica and the Apostolic Palace by way of the Pauline Chapel, the Sala Regia (Regal Room), the Ducal Hall and the Sistine Chapel. The walls, which grandly display the six hills and star of the coat of arms of Pope Alexander VII Chigi (1655-67), support a great coffered vault decorated with rosettes, conserved over the centuries through interventions that have partly changed the original appearance of the room. In the last century, the coloring of the surfaces was greatly modified. Recently, the stucco decorations have been compromised; this was caused by aging materials and the infiltration of rainwater from the roof terrace overlooking the Basilica. The consequent safety of the hall’s ceiling has drastically limited the practicability of the environment. Restoration of the floors and the elimination of the problematic water infiltration allowed the possibility of repairing the lost stucco elements, thus returning the room as the ceremonial setting and use for which it was designed. The restoration of this large hall as representation for papal ceremonies will re-consign to the Vatican one of its most important monumental spaces, a privileged place for encounters between the Holy Father and the faithful.

Bramante Courtyard

Historical Note

At the request of Pope Julius II, Architect Donato Bramante began his great project in 1504 to construct a theatrical space with a dramatic façade and staircase upon the available terrain within the villa on Vatican Hill. His design was intended to integrate nature, provide access to the most beloved antique statues, and offer a serene walk throughout the rest of the palace. Over time, modifications altered Bramante’s original design, such as when the medieval palace next to St. Peter’s needed to connect to the Villa Belvedere atop the hill. Today, the Courtyard’s four façades are still among those that have remained quintessential in defining renaissance architecture, and are at last being restored according to techniques used at the time of their conception and construction. The most distinctive section the Courtyard, the Wall of the Nicchione, is part of the northern façade of the Bramante Courtyard. Its construction commenced under the building direction of Pirro Ligorio at the request of Pope Pius IV (Medici 1560-65), and received its large hemispherical niche during the papacy of Clement IX (Albani, 1700-1721). It is here where the large, 4-meter high bronze Pinecone, originally located in the Campus Martiusand later in the atrium of the old St. Peter’s Basilica, stately resides in its niche, providing the alternative namesake, The Pinecone Courtyard.

State of preservation

Over the course of hundreds of years, the walls of the Bramante Courtyard exposed to all weather conditions suffered much damage aesthetically and integrally. One of the major previous attempts at restoring the courtyard was in 1957. Unfortunately, the walls were hardly renovated; instead, the entire surface area was painted over in a muted yellow hue to mask the damaged areas. Lamentably, the weakened areas became more feeble still. Different parts of the building suffered from fragmentation and falling debris, which, in turn, endangeres the six million visitors that every year walk through and nearby these famous architectural elements. For many years, the four sides were closed off with provisional barriers to protect the visitors, who resultantly could only view the architecture and sculptures from a distance.

 

Direct observation of the surface’s health confirmed that which was intuitive from ground level: the finishes on the upper areas of the edifice were subjected to greater stress due to erosion and serious drainage problems. The latter issues needed to be addressed simultaneously to protect the collections that would be vulnerable to leaks in the fragile roof.

Extensive investigation went underway to determine the definitive color. Upon research and analysis of the original wall and plaster layers, it was found that Bramante’s façade was originally a Travertine white. Travertine is actually not a “color” but a “concept” of many layers of plaster bonded strategically together. Whereas the previous interventions in the 20th century were neither loyal to classical methods nor characteristically archival, the chosen restoration plan would faithful to the original architectural techniques of Bramante in the early 16th century. The exterior layers of plaster applied in the Travertine method would transmute into part of the original structure of the wall. This technique, combined with elimination of any synthetic materials would together facilitate that all inevitable future wear and aging would occur gracefully and uniformly, without buckling or cracking.

The fundamental goal of the restoration is to bring the Courtyard back to its original state as Bramante intended. This involves cleaning and removing residues of previous treatments, deep superficial consolidations and integration of the missing and degraded parts, removal of plaster, restoration to its original state, finishing the surface with mainly traditional materials, reconstructing the drainage lines and overhauling the roof, reclamation of the water systems, and installing a new lighting system.

Work began with three smaller “pilot” sections in order to confirm a more accurate cost analysis for the entire courtyard. At the conclusion of the pilot sections’ restoration, conservation went underway for the Wall of the Nicchione in September 2016. Restoring this section was not limited to the hemispherical niche, but rather includes all facades of the north face. In working on this labor-intensive section of over three thousand square meters, it was evident that in addition to the façade, the antique wooden structures also required much attention and conservation.

The fundamental goal of the restoration is to bring the Courtyard back to its original state as Bramante intended. This involves cleaning and removing residues of previous treatments, deepsuperficial consolidations and integration of the missing and degraded parts, removal of plaster, restoration to its original state, finishing the surface with mainly traditional materials, reconstructing the drainage lines and overhauling the roof, reclamation of the water systems, and installing a new lighting system.

Work began with three smaller “pilot” sections in order to confirm a more accurate cost analysis for the entire courtyard. At the conclusion of the pilot sections’ restoration, conservation went underway for the Wall of the Nicchione in September 2016. Restoring this section was not limited to the hemispherical niche, but rather includes all facades of the north face. In working on this labor-intensive section of over three thousand square meters, it was evident that in addition to the façade, the antique wooden structures also required much attention and conservation.

The repairs and consolidations executed in the pilot sections were analogous in nature to those in the entire surface. The extent of degradation in these sections confirmed the magnitude of work necessary for the whole. Also, the effort required to work on the pilot sites was congruent with and largely confirmed the preliminary cost and timing estimates for the entire Courtyard.

To date the entire surface area of the Wall of the Nicchione is reinforced and consolidated. And completion of applying the travertine technique will continue over the entire surface area. In the same manner of the Wall of the Nicchione, restoration will proceed similarly for the other three walls: the Ancient Library Gallery, the Braccio Nuovo, and the Chiaramonti Gallery.

The restoration project of the Bramante Courtyard will not only return the courtyard walls to its original travertine cream color, but it also focuses also on recovering the original spirit of the overall design that the Architect Donato Bramante had in mind. He intended one of the wings of the Bramante’s courtyard to be one long rooftop terrace for the Pope to stroll with a commanding view of both the wonderful cityscape of ancient Rome but also the Vatican gardens. This project seeks to restore its crowning jewel: the restoration of the antique portal of the Etruscan Museum that opened up to the rooftop terrace passageway that once connected the Belvedere Villa with the Apostolic Palace.

There is still about three years of work estimated for the rest of the courtyard, at the end of which will involve completely new lighting and security systems. The project also envisages a revised layout for the entire courtyard, beginning with a trial implementation with the north face following its restoration. In particular, the location of the on-site Egyptian statues and monuments will be modified, after the new lighting systems are in place. These renovations and modifications will ensure that for years to come, the millions of museumgoers will be able to safely enjoy and fully savor the pulchritude of the Courtyard and that of the collections lying there within.

 

West wall side Library  € 1.075.000,00

East wall side Chiaramonti  € 1.725.000,00

South wall side Braccio Nuovo  € 858.408,00

 

 

 

The Vatican Gardens

A place of delight and repose, of spiritual meditation and contact with nature, the Vatican Gardens occupy almost half of the 44 acres that constitute the Vatican City State. Meandering through the gardens means passing through a history of almost eight centuries told via plants, shrubs, sculptures and fountains which bear testimony to the varying tastes of different Pontiffs who, over time, have added their own personal modifications and changes to the visage of “Vatican nature”. Although profoundly transformed after changes following the 1929 Lateran Treaty between Church and State, the Vatican Gardens’ history dates back to the time of Pope Nicolas II (1277-1280). On one of the Vatican hills, he planted a viridarium, a walled area of greenery styled according to medieval use. It was comprised of medicinal herbs, and could have very well been one of the first botanical gardens in Italy. From this primary nucleus, other foliage was eventually added to accompany the ornamental plants and citrus trees. The area developed into a larger garden enhanced by multiple architects, such as Donato Bramante, who also conceived the Belvedere Courtyard during the pontificate of Julius II.

 

Unfortunately the French invasion of 1798 severely destroyed a major part of the gardens. In the following century, after some first attempts at ruralizing the area, Gregory XVI reinstated the care of the gardens. He redesigned the secret garden of Paul III (currently the square courtyard of the Pinacoteca), established greenhouses and dispersed within the woods various sculptures and marble fixtures according the latest fashion of the English garden. One example was an area under the holm-oak woods defined in an antique document as “a spot, or rather, the English gardens” wherein lied a peculiarity – a “kind of temple constructed out of the ruins”. This capricious pastiche was created from pieces of other monuments, some of which have since disappeared. It actually consisted of a statue of Apollo strumming his lyre and resting on a pedestal, which subsequently leaned on a marble slab from a monument dating from the time of the first Vatican Council in 1885. In 1935, the conglomeration was dismantled and used as ornamentation in various zones of the garden. The 1929 Treaty brought radical transformations. The newly formed Vatican City State necessitated interior restructuring, including that of the garden area. Architect Giuseppe Momo alongside botanist Giovanni Nicolini managed in four years to overhaul the garden’s physiognomy into what is visible today. However, the changes are ongoing. There are almost 550 pieces of ancient monuments, gifts to the pontificate, Marian statues, and other sculptures being used to furnish and embellish the natural environment. The gardens continue to give testimony to a rich history as a capable team of gardeners, still adhering to the schema set by Momo and Nicolini, labor unceasingly to enrich the space materially and spiritually. Also thanks to the continual addition of Catholic devotional pieces gifted to the Pontificate, every embellishment helps the gardens to keep growing as one of the most striking areas of the Vatican.

Restoration

The important initiative to restore the works that adorn the gardens started in the second half of 2014 with a pilot site (named Cascatelle, or small waterfalls). Accurate planning, in turn, warranted the subdivision of the entire garden’s vast lot of territory in order to better organize the operators and restorers. Over the course of time many pieces were restored such as the “temple” in ruin with the ancient statue of Apollo, which eventually resided in the area known as “the Holm Oaks”. This section, arranged and ornamented in the 1900’s according to the romantic style, was bejeweled with archeological finds from the Museums, dismembered monuments, antique sarcophagi, Roman statues, and caprices from the turn of the century sculpted in an antique style. Other examples such as this include the darling pastique now in the Madonna della Guardia (Madonna of the Guard), which displays an elegant female bust emerging from a seashell. An important advance in faith formation was the restoration of the Grotto of Lourdes. This section is an authentic representation of the famous French sanctuary of Massabielle where the Madonna appeared to the fourteen year-old Bernadette Soubirous. The grotto was a gift to Pope Leo XIII in 1902 from the Bishop of Tarbes with the original altar of the Grotto di Lourdes inside. Dear to the pontiffs who celebrate Mass here on special occasions, the pilgrimage destination is also a place where a compelling candlelit procession concludes at the end of the May. The faithful process through the gardens on a “Marian” pilgrimage route dotted along the way with images of Our Lady, and conclude at the Grotto in the presence of the Holy Father.

The demanding restoration of the gardens is estimated to last about another two years, a period in which work will commence in important zones such as Eliporto (the helicopter landing), Torre San Giovanni (The Tower of St. John XXIII), and the Fontana di Aquilone (Fountain of the Eagle). Also included in the projects is the Giardino Quadrato (Rectangular Garden) of antique origin. This section enlivens every visitor’s gaze spanning from the Pinacoteca, and then meeting up with the gardens of the Casina of Pius IV, a fascinating example of 16th century Roman architecture and now the seat of the Pontifical Academy of the Sciences. The gardens of the Casina were even once bedecked with medicinal herbs intended to help care for the pontiff. The pilot section of Cascatelle was paramount in developing innovative procedures and conservation methodologies. In particular, essential oil solutions were employed (i.e. oregano, rosemary, licorice) for biocide treatments with very low environmental impact. So much positive feedback was received for this new experimentation that it was decided to organize a study day regarding the technologies, wherein field experts were invited to share and learn about the important findings from the process.

 

Station

Accessing Vatican City is possible by rail at a little station along a 300-meter line of track (the shortest in the world) that merges from outside a tunnel in the Gardens’ hillside. Completed by Giuseppe Momo in 1931, the railway links the Vatican Gardens with the enchanting flora of Castel Gandalfo, the summer papal residence. The marble bases and fragments of friezes in this darling area relay messages of both change and charm. They not only mark post-Lateran treaty transportation developments, but also denote where popes and dignitaries of the past and now special guests can depart for a revelatory escape. This area of the Vatican City State was completed as well by Giuseppe Momo in 1931. Here the train from the Vatican can access the Roman territory directly from the Vatican City State trough a giant gate. Several green areas around this location have marble bases and fragments of friezes and statues that need to be restored and preserved.

TOTAL COST € 67.300,00

 

Laghetto

Surrounded by beauty from all angles, this area of the Gardens is flanked by the Cascatelle, the Fountain of the Eagle, and watched over by the Madonna of the Guard. The charming section is situated in the English Style Garden area just at the edge of the French garden. It is dotted with several fountains, statues, and marble bases bearing a variety of representations such as the papal coat of arms, aquatic scenes, and allegorical imagery. This beautiful area of the Vatican Gardens is situated in the English Style Garden area just at the edge of the French area where the entrance of the aisle to the grotto of Lourdes id located. It is composed by several fountains with the coat of arm of the Popes, statues and marble bases.

TOTAL COST € 210.800,00

 

Governatorate – Adopted by the Colorado Chapter 

This area of the Vatican Gardens comprises the Vatican Governorate in which is the seat of the leader of the Pontifical Commission for the Vatican City State, the legislative body of Vatican City. The building built by Giuseppe Momo in the 1930’s is set amid a rainbow of cactuses along the back street, the St. Joseph Fountain, and surrounded by flowers that are even arranged into the current papal coat of arms at its entranceway. Among the pieces needing restoration in this section are other papal coats of arms in stone: those of Pius IX, Pius XI, John XXIII, as well as an inscription of Gregory XVI. This area of the Vatican Gardens comprises the Vatican Governorate Building which was built by Giuseppe Momo in the ‘30s and it is presently the see of the Office of His Eminence Cardinal Bertello. This area presents also a wonderful rocky wall with cactuses along the main back street.

TOTAL COST € 58.700,00

 

Giardino Quadrato – Adopted by the Belgium Chapter 

The large quadratic section of the Gardens is rich in history, with the essence of its citrus trees leaving a vestige of times past. Its legacy told in flourishing vegetation greatly precedes that of its neighboring twentieth century painting gallery. Here was once the secret garden of Paul III, a Pope who saw the Church through changes during the Reformation, convened the Council of Trent, approved the religious order of the Jesuits, and significantly supported the arts during his pontificate. This historical Garden decorates the squared plaza in front of our painting gallery. A large fountain is located in its centre and millions of tourists walk among the orange trees displayed in the terracotta large vases every day. Here the guides explain the Sistine Chapel to the groups every morning. This garden was wonderfully decorated under Pope Paul III with flowers and orange and lemon trees all over its space. Its historical relevance is momentous.

TOTAL COST € 54.600,00

 

Ethiopian College

Continuing the gentle climb to the highest level of the Gardens one discovers the flower-filled Ethiopian College. Surrounded by magnolias and araucaria trees, the building was commissioned by Pope Pius XI in order to provide Ethiopian seminarians a place to further their studies. In this section various marble fragments need restoration, including a travertine kiosk with a statue of St. Teresa, the coat of arms of Pius XI, and the exquisite Triton and Mermaid fountains in the rose garden, from where an intimate and stunning view of the city is possible.

TOTAL COST € 93.800,00

 

Fontana Aquilone

The most majestic fountain in the gardens is the 17th century Fountain of the Eagle, responsible for the namesake of this section. Its impressive hydraulic devices delight visitors as they shoot in an improvisational way, and its “water music” ranging from a light sprinkle to a roar of thunder offers a harmonious respite from the heat. There are over 40 stone pieces and fragments that need attention here. The most notable is the monument to St. Peter that previously stood in the courtyard of the Vatican Museums and was originally destined to reside on Rome’s Janiculum hill to commemoratethe First Vatican Council.

TOTAL COST € 386.500,00

 

Casina Pius IV – Adopted by The Ohio Chapter

In the most ancient part of the Gardens lies the stunning “Casina Pio IV,” taking its name from Pope Pius IV, who saw its building to completion. This garden area was originally dedicated to herbal plantswith healing properties for the Pope. There are many architectural fragments in need of restoration residing in this space used as a splendid retreat spot on a given midsummer afternoon. Although it served as a papal hunting lodge when wildlife still roamed the Vatican, the Casina is now the current site of the Pontifical Academy of Sciences.

TOTAL COST € 114.100,00

Climate Control and Illumination of Borgia Apartments

In the year 1492, as Christopher Columbus was sailing from Spain on his first voyage to discover The New World, the recently elected Spanish Pope Alexander VI (1492-1503), commissioned Pinturicchio to decorate the Papal Apartments in the Apostolic Palace. The Borgia Apartment occupied the entire first floor of the Apostolic Palace that now forms part of the Vatican Museums. Generous contributions from our Florida, Michigan, Philadelphia and Canada Patrons have already enabled the restoration of frescoes and embellishments in the Borgia Apartments through the advancements of science combined with the delicacy of the human touch. Now, to sustain the health of the precious artwork on their walls and ensure that they can be appreciated for generations, it is imperative to maintain proper lighting and climate control in the Apartments.

Pinturrichio, assisted by the members of his workshop which included Benedetto Bonfigli, Pietro d’Andrea da Volterra and Antonio da Viterbo, first completed decorating this vast space in 1494, a mere 2 years following its inception. The overall effect of his ornamental scheme was a lushly detailed, illuminated manuscript that highlighted the intellectual interest of the papal court and the Borgia family. Many of the religious figures depicted on the walls were portraits of family members in the guise of saints and soldiers. After the death of Alexander VI, the subsequent popes preferred to live elsewhere and, over time, the apartments began to be used as residences for cardinals of the curia. Among these was Saint Charles Borromeo, who served as Secretary of State to his uncle, Pope Pius IV. Pinturicchio’s frescoes were repainted and restored in 1816, under Pius VII, when the Vatican Pinacoteca was housed here, and again in 1897, when Leo XIII opened it to the public (the rooms were also restored, and most of the floors reconstructed as copies of the original ceramic tiles, very few of which had survived). A subsequent restoration was carried out when the apartment was chosen to house part of the Collection of Modern Religious Art.

In order to not only appreciate the Apartments in their renewed state but also to preserve these testimonies of the “New World” for visitors of today, installing modern technologies of lighting and climate control is necessary. The thermo hygrometer shifts due to the changing of humidity, temperature, and heat are the major cause of deterioration in art collections. The high volume of people eager to appreciate these rooms and enter into Pintoricchio’s “new world” also warrants a climatization system essential. Any changes in temperature and/or humidity are foes of the frescoes, but with air conditioning systems, they will live in much better conditions.

A proper lighting system is essential to the preservation of the artworks because it prevents dangerous radiation that would harm the artwork. At the same this system helps to illuminate beauty of the works, thanks to exposing them to the proper electromagnetic spectrum. The correct lighting contributes to an evocative experience and enables the viewer to fully appreciate the works of art. The illumination and climatization efforts are proposed for the Room of the Mysteries, the Saints, the Liberal Arts, and the Creed in the Borgia Apartments.

The Room of the Mysteries

This was the last of the rooms decorated by Pinturicchio but the first to be restored. In part, it merits to begin here, because a large proportion of this room was completed by his assistants. The Mysteries of the Faith are depicted in the lunettes: the Annunciation, the Nativity, the Adoration of the Magi, the Resurrection, the Ascension, Pentecost, and the Assumption of the Virgin into heaven. Several portraits of Pinturicchio’s contemporaries appear here. There is a splendid portrait of Alexander VI in the Resurrection, as a well as asoldier kneeling and holding a lance, most likely representing Cesare Borgia, the pope’s manservant. Eight tondi decorate the spandrels of the two vaults with the busts of the prophets, each identified on their frame: Micah, Joel, Jeremiah, Sophonias, Isaiah, Solomon, Malachi, David. Restoration and was completed in 2006 after a five-year renovation, thanks to the generosity of the Florida Patrons.

The Room of the Saints

The artist’s hand of Pinturicchio is most evident in this room, for which he planned out and executed most of the frescoes. The subjects depicted are: the Martyrdom of St. Sebastian, Susannah and the elders, Events from the Life of St. Barbara, St. Catherine disputing, the Meeting of St. Anthony the Abbot and St. Paul the Hermit, and the Visitation. Scenes from the myth of Isis and Osiris are depicted in the spandrels of the vault, according to a “blueprint” by Antonio da Viterbo; their presence, together with that of the bull Apis, is an allusion to the Borgia family crest. On the large arch one finds scenes from the myth of Io and Argos. Several portraits of contemporaries are represented here: the papal architect, Antonio da Sangallo holding a square and Pinturicchio himself. Above the door leading to the Room of the Mysteries, there is a Madonna and Child in which the Madonna is possibly a portrait of Giulia Farnese. The restoration of the first half of this room was made possible thanks to the generosity of the Philadelphia Patrons and was completed in 2010. The conservation of the second half of this Sala was generously supported by the Michigan Patrons.

The Room of the Liberal Arts

This is the first of the rooms of the Borgia Apartment. It was Alexander VI’s study and he also used to dine here; his body was laid in this room when he died. The name of the room has its origins in the medieval concept of the Arts of the Trivium and of the Quadrivium, which made up the Liberal Arts. The Arts are represented in the lunettes as enthroned women, each identified by an inscription: Astronomy, Grammar, Dialectics, Rhetoric, Geometry, Arithmetic, Music. Some of the figures surrounding the Arts are portraits of contemporaries. The figure of Euclid, kneeling before Geometry and intent upon measuring with compasses, may be a portrait of Bramante. Only part of the work is by Pinturicchio, whose name appears on the base of Rhetoric’s throne. The rest can be attributed to Tiberio d’Assisi or to Pastura. The five octagons of the large central arch are 16th century additions or possibily previous restorative efforts. Depicted here is: Jacob takes leave of Laban; the Angels save Lot from the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah; Justice, Trajan’s justice; Justice distributes gifts. The gilded stucco reliefs on the vault represent the pope’s coat-of-arms and devices. The 16th century fireplace, which was restored thanks to the Minnesota patrons, carved in “pietra serena” from a design by Sansovino, is the work of Simone Mosca. The marble friezes have been recreated by the Medici firm following the original drawings of the frieze made by the same firm in 1897. Tradition has it that this hearth once stood in Castel Sant’Angelo. The beautiful fireplace was masterfully restored thanks to the generosity of the Minnesota Patrons. Restoration of this room was made possible thanks to the generosity of the Canadian Patrons.

The Room of the Creed

The Room of the Creed, yet to be restored, has a ceiling decorated with complex geometric designs of the papal coat of arms and Borgia insignias. The figured decoration is comprised of twelve lunettes depicting pairs of apostles and prophets. They symbolize the concordance between the Old and New Testaments and are represented on a blue background, surrounded by sinuous scrolls with passages of Scripture. This room will be restored as the final stage of this cycle of four rooms after the completion of the restoration of the Room of Liberal Arts. We are looking for an interested sponsor among our patrons who can help us finish this final stage of an amazing restoration project. We look forward to having Patrons visit these restoration sites when they come to Rome and enjoy the master’s work in person, in the most famous apartments in the world. Thanks to the generosity of our many chapters who have supported these various rooms, the Renaissance will be brought back for us to marvel at today.

 

 

The Pontifical Sanctuary of the Holy Stairs

One of the most important holy sites in Christianity, the Holy Stairs, or Scala Santa, are said to be the same steps in Jerusalem mounted by Christ before he was judged by Pontius Pilate. They were brought to Rome in 326 AD by St.Helena, mother of Emperor Constantine and placed near their current site on land donated to the Early Church by the Emperor. In 1277, when the Lateran was still the papal residence, the Sancta Sanctorum, or “Holiest of Holy Places” was constructed as the private chapel for the popes.

The chapel is not alone in the complex of the Holy Stairs. To its one side is the Chapel of St. Lawrence, dedicated to the martyr who believed that the suffering, blind, and crippled were treasures of the Church. On the other side resides the chapel of St. Sylvester, the pope to whom Constantine dedicated the Lateran area during his empire. These chapels are places filled with countless prayers,innumerable relics, and saintly frescoes.

Millions of pilgrims have since paid homage to this devotional site, and continue to do so today. In a disposition of sincere humility, one must ascend the stairs on their knees. Any visitor who witnesses the devotion with which the faithful ascend the Holy Stairs, remains in awe of the prayerful dedication to the Passion of Christ.

Building a properly enclosed structure around the Scala Santa was one of the major projects inaugurated by Pope Sixtus V in 1590 and eventually completed by architect Domenico Fontana. The Holy Pontiff also hired a team of forty artists to decorate the interior vaults and stairwells. Cesare Nebbia and Giovanni Guerra headed the multivariate group. Today, the stairs contain more than 1700 square meters of frescoes telling the story of the Old and New Testaments. Various saints and doctors of the church make their debut next to superb landscapes by Flemish master, Paul Brill.

These cycles were executed in a style that came to be known as the Late Mannerism movement, which was to influence the development of figurative painting in Rome for years to come.

The Passionist Fathers became custodians of this extra-territorial domain of the Holy See and took up plans to completely restore its chapels and frescoed walls that had suffered significant deterioration over the centuries.

After a major collaboration with the Getty Foundation in 2000 to restore the Chapel of Saint Sylvester, a campaign to “Save the Stairs” began in 2012, and responsibility for restoration was transferred completely into the hands of the Vatican Museums. Donations from the Patrons of the Arts raised partial funding for the project enabling 3/5 of the five phase enterprise to be restored. The blackened walls almost miraculously dissipated as the work of the nine-membered team elicited forth the dazzling colors of the 16th century frescoes.

This is a high-profile endeavor, especially in light of the originality and long history of the Sanctuary. The restorative genius of the Vatican team sponsored by the Patrons of the Arts has and will continue to enhance this space of spiritual fulfillment for its two million visitors each year.

The first three phases of restoration are completed. This includes the Chapel of San Sylvester, the Chapel of San Lorenzo, and the two side stairwells to both the right and the left of the Scala Santa. The vaulting of these two lateral stairwells, one decorated with scenes from the Old Testament and the outside one with the emblem of Pope Sixtus V, are now terminated together with the dome and the walls depicting two exceptional scenes of the Sacrifice of Isaac and the Creation of Eve at the top of the stairs.

 

Work will continue under the supervision of Maestro Paolo Violini until until the frescoes and walls are restored. The 9-member conservation team will be working with the utmost concentration to complete the last two phases of restoration. The main staircase of the Holy Stairs and the atrium will be finished contemporarily using the same care and experience gained during the completed previous phases. The result is a dramatic recuperation of the brilliant chromatics alongside the integrity of the plasterwork and decorative elements in these staircases. Removing that which was retouched in prior restorative attempts as well as innovative strategies to ensure future restorative maintenance will be part of the ongoing strategy. These efforts will allow a new reading of the original figurative scenes which were previously almost illegible. The entire sanctuary has begun to regain its original luminosity thanks to the vibrant colors of the various biblical scenes elicited forth from the concentrated minds and dexterous fingers of the restoration team.

 

STILL TO BE FUNDED

  • COST FOR THE FOURTH PHASE: Holy Stairs, January ’18 – December ’18 = € 494.270,00

  • COST FOR THE FIFTH PHASE: Atrium, January ’19 – December ’19 = € 299.300,00

Twelve month Patron’s Office Fellowship

As the Patrons of the Arts continues to grow and expand, so do the number of projects, events, and patrons visits. In order to keep up with this increased activity, our Vatican office has created Fellowship positions for twelve months, renewable for a maximum of three years upon decision of the director of the Patrons Office and Direction of the Vatican Museums. The opportunity to provide one or more of these Fellowships rests on the generosity of our Patron community. Since its commencement in 2010, these special positions have become a crucial part of our Vatican office operations. In contrast to the short periods of volunteer work provided by our interns, the longevity and commitment required by one or more fellowships affords the office an essential level of continuity and, in turn, a more comprehensive work experience for the Fellows. The Patrons Of The Arts in The Vatican Museums offers this opportunity to recent graduates and beginning professionals in several areas. Our Fellowship program provides the opportunity to learn about the operations of a non-profit art organization and to work in collaboration with competent museum professionals.

The Fellows greatly help the Patrons of the Arts in handling its duties, function as reliable members of the team by taking on mid to long-term responsibilities, and assist with a variety of events, patrons visits, and daily interactions. Fellows should also enthusiastically promote the mission of the Catholic Church through this non-profit organization. Sponsorship from our Patrons ensures that the high standards of service to our Patrons will be met. Fellowships are hired by the International Director of the Patrons of the Arts, and can be named after the sponsoring chapter. The cost to support a single Fellowship includes the stipend for the fellow as well as administrative costs, and insurance fees.

Climate Control of the Raphael Rooms


Incendio di Borgo

With the numbers of people visiting the Vatican Museums on the rise, conservation of priceless masterpieces has never been more important. A minimum of 20,000 people per day travel through the museums. The Raphael Rooms are some of the most popular attractions in the museums. Thousands of people stop in these rooms daily on their way to the Sistine Chapel. we plan to conserve these four magnificent rooms using climate control. By adding air conditioning units, we can assure that restorations of these works will endure much better.


Stanza Costantino

 

RAPHAEL ROOMS

The suite of rooms known as Raphael’s Stanze (stanza: room) are part of the private apartment of Pope Julius II della Rovere and his successors, until Gregory XIII. The rooms are situated on the second floor of the Apostolic Palace, directly above the Borgia Apartment. Apart from the Stanze proper, they also included the Sala degli Svizzeri (Room of the Swiss Guards), the Sala dei Chiaroscuri, the Chapel of Nicholas V (his private chapel), and the Logge.

Veduta Eliodoro

Julius II’s bedroom (cubiculum), now closed to the public, communicated with the chapel and the Sala dei Chiaroscuri. It was preceded by a small antechamber that linked the Sala dei Chiaroscuri with the Stanza di Eliodoro. Julius II lived in this apartment from 1507, not wishing to live in the Borgia Apartment, since, as the master of ceremonies Paris de Grassis explained, “non volebat videre omni hora figuram Alexandri praedecessoris sui”(“he did not want to see the image of his predecessor Alexander VI at every moment”).

Segnatura

The Stanze were frescoed by Raphael and his assistants between 1508 and 1524. The decoration of these rooms marked the debut of the brilliant Roman career of Raphael, who took over from artists then much better known, including his teacher Perugino and others. Parts of their works were destroyed to make way for those of the young master; the pre-existing paintings of Piero della Francesca, Bartolomeo della Gatta and Luca Signorelli were completely destroyed. There are four Stanze. They are cross-vaulted. Except for the Sala di Costantino, which forms part of the 13th-century wing of the Apostolic Palace, they are situated in the range of rooms built under Nicholas V. To the north they overlook the Cortile del Belvedere, and to the south.

Model of Piazza Pius XII by Pierino Di Carlo

Pierino Di Carlo lavora al modello di Roma antica_1935_courtesy P. Di Carlo

The plaster model of Piazza Pius XII was made by the artist Pierino di Carlo from Abruzzo (1906-1992) in the 1930’s. Pierino di Carlo was already thModello 2e creator of the famous scale model of Rome in the Constantine age known as Grande Plastico dell’Urbe (scale1:250) that is kept in the Museum of the Roman Civilization. The artist was known as one of the most talented artisans and scholars of this typology of architectural replica. The quintessence of the Vatican collections is divided in two sections and faithfully reconstructs the wide entry that connects Via della Conciliazione to St. Peters, and the buildings that delimit it. The prodigious technical competence with which this piece was made stands as witness to the vast experience that the artist had with material. At the same time, it is proof of the remarkable need the commissioner had. As an elevated quality was asked of Pierino Di Carlo, he responded by offering excellence with regards to the technical aspect: Di Carlo meticulously represents each and every architectural element, each ratio, molding, and profile, while faithfully respecting the dimension of the project in scale. The two sections present a wooden framework and a “double level” in plaster in those parts which are not visible. Both are fixed with vegetable fibers. Thus, respecting the traditional techniques for the creation of plaster models.

Modello 3

Modello 4

Copies of the catacomb paintings

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The collections of the Pius Christian Museum encompass 34 copies of ancient paintings that are principally dedicated to the decoration of the Roman suburban catacombs. The painting copies are made with tempera or oil on canvas applied on a canvas sustainment that is mounted on wooden frames.

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At times, they could reach monumental sizes. Moreover, they were made during the 19th century by specialized copyists, who were accustomed to entering the uncomfortable underground spaces to copy from the legitimate antique paintings, with torches as their only source of light. This was the only way to enable the general public and scholars to be part of this artistic heritage that would daily emerge from the archeological exploring from the underground cemeteries. Without them, these paintings would have been inaccessible to the public.

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The one-of-a-kind copies of the catacomb paintings are connected to the first developments of Christian archeology seen as a scientific discipline thanks to the work of the Jesuit Father Giuseppe Marchi and of his brilliant pupil, Giovanni Battista de Rossi. When Pope Pius IX (1846-1878) requested the creation of a «Christian Museum» in the Lateran Palace to Fr. Marchi, Marchi decided to commission copies of the catacomb paintings from the famous painter Carlo Ruspi and other specialists, as Silvestro Bossi. The Pius Christian Museum, named after its creator, was launched in 1854, with a section purposefully dedicated to the grand “fac-simile” of the catacomb frescoes. Unfortunately, when the archeological collections of the Lateran Museum were moved to the Vatican in 1963, the painted copies did not find space within the new set-up and ended up in storage. Here, they were essentially forgotten until the rediscovery and the appreciation occurred with the restoration project. Of the latter, some phases have already been concluded.

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Indeed, in the past years, the renewed awareness regarding these precious documents led to the recovery of the large paintings, currently exhibited in the Pius Christian Museum. A fourth painting, of large dimensions, is located in the Painting Restoration Laboratory of the Vatican Museums. The success of these first initiatives encouraged the beginning of a collective restoration project of the copies from the 1800’s, in order to give back to the Museums and to its visitors a patrimony of great aesthetic and documentary value.

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In particular, thank to the contribution of the California Patrons of the Arts in the Vatican Museums it was possible to complete the restoration in 2014 and 2015: disinfestations, clearing and securing of the 34 painting reproductions. Moreover, the support of the Patrons allowed the restoration of a group of five paintings that had drawn attention to certain urgent conservation needs. Along with these, there were also missing parts, tears and detachments of the paint layer, seen as a cause of its preservative status, as well as the deteriorated phenomenon connected to the deformation of the wooden frameworks.

Drawings from the Archives of the Basilica of Saint Paul Outside the Walls

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Thanks to the contribution given by many Patrons of the Arts of the Vatican Museums from different Chapters such as Canada and Minnesota, the restoration project of the first group of works on papers has reached its conclusion. This pertains to a very rich ensemble of documents, drawings and projects all drafted in 1823 and 1824, and that are now housed in the archives. These artifacts tell the story of the reconstruction of Saint Paul Outside The Walls. following the devastating fire of 1823. They are, therefore, quintessential to the preservation of the historical identity of this papal basilica. In order to complete the restoration of this collection, it is necessary to work on 300 more drawings which are very fragile. These artifacts are distinguishable from the previous lot as their sizes are much larger, their preservation status is more complex, and they need a more careful and thorough restoration in order to regain their decorative beauty.

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This is a collection of graphic works composed of heliographic prints embellished with graphite, colored pencils and inks on a 1:1 scale. The works depict architectural elements such as grooves and bases of columns, moldings and trabeations, and even decorative patterns used for designing pilasters on mural paintings. Included are architectural renderings made on tracing paper – waxed or cotton-based-which picture the transept, naves, altars and bell tower.

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Therefore, any kind of decorative patterns which is used on pilasters. There are architectural drawings made on tracing paper -wax or canvas -which describe the transept, the naves, the altars and the bell tower. Lastly, there are the general schemes of the exquisite decorative apparatuses, the representation of the details (mosaics, floor marbles, friezes and ceilings) all made on paper with colored pencils or tempera.